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Kässbohrer - Exhaust technology for the future.

Lagt til av: Espen Børresen | publisert: 21.09.2010

Kässbohrer engines meet new exhaust emission guidelines!

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Pioneering spirit and innovative strength are crucial features for keeping a company on a growth course. It is not those who chase after things that shape the market, but rather those who seek new paths. Kässbohrer’s many years of success show that the PistenBully developers have understood what customers and markets want: operating comfort is also at the forefront alongside profitability and functionality and, for some time, the development of new vehicle technologies with an ecological aspect has had to be incorporated. Kässbohrer definitely takes a leading role when it comes to ecology. For example, the PistenBully's filter tech-nology has been awarded the German environ-men-tal prize. Continual redevelopment of the vehicles has also lead to the PistenBully fleet being best equipped for the new emission regulations that come into force from 2011 and 2014 in Europe, the USA and Japan. The company is currently testing the diesel-electric drive in its vehicles with an eye to the future.

New emission limits.
The negative effects of the fuel exhaust emissions – particularly the nitrous oxide (NOx) and particulate matter contained therein – on air quality and health are sufficiently well-known. The EU passed a law in 1999 to curtail the effects of the air pollution (EU Stage 1) which specifies strict emission limits for diesel and petrol vehicles with regard to NOx and particulate matter. The EU Stage 3A and the American EPA Tier 3 still apply until 2011. From 2011, the EU Stage 3B and the EPA Tier 4 interim come into force and then the EU Stage 4 and the EPA Tier 4 final follow in 2014. Kässbohrer uses two methods in its engine technology to meet these new exhaust emission regulations. The SCR technology in Mercedes-Benz engines, which are used in the PistenBully 600, for example, and the AGR technology in Cummins engines, which are used in the PistenBully 400 or in the Formatic 350 always in combination with soot particle filters. SCR technology has been standard in the HGV industry for years and is sufficient to meet the regulations of EU Stage 3B. From the current perspective, the SCR technology must be combined with the AGR technology in both engine types to meet the strict requirements of EU Stage 4. All PistenBully models are also equipped with particle filter technology.

Equipping the PistenBully from 2011.
Kässbohrer is gradually rolling out appropriate engine technology across the PistenBully fleet to meet the requirements of the future exhaust emission regulations. The company is investing in engines today so it is able to meet the need commercially over the next few years, Exhaust emission level 3A/Tier 3 will be achieved in 2011 with the introduction of stock engines. From 2012, the PistenBully models 100, 400, 600 and 600 Polar will be equipped for the EU and US markets in accordance with EU 3B/Tier 4i regulations. From 2014, these models will be modified so that they meet EU 4/Tier 4 final.

Expect more in the future.
Just meeting the legal requirements is not enough for Kässbohrer. Work has been going on for a long time on new technologies to reduce vehicles’ CO2 emissions. In this context, Kässbohrer presented a study for the first time at Interalpin 2009 on the use of a diesel-electric drive for the PistenBully. A lot has happened since then and the first vehicles with this technology are now in the testing phase. A diesel-electric drive practically carries its own power station with it – a generator that is driven by a diesel engine. The electrical energy produced not only supplies the propulsion motors, but also the electric motors for direct drive of tiller and winch. The advantages of this technology: low fuel consumption and, thus, lower CO2 emissions and lower operating costs. Additionally, in comparison to a hydrostatic drive, the same or even a higher level of efficiency is achieved with lower power. Moreover, the energy is regained on the downrides and is used to drive the snow tiller.

The technologies for emission reduction in detail
SCR technology

In SCR technology the nitrogen emissions are reduced with a downstream ceramic catalytic converter – the SCR-Cat. This process requires a non-toxic and odourless urea solution (AdBlue). It is injected into the exhaust gas flow and converts the nitrous oxide in the catalyser into water vapour and elementary nitrogen, a natural component of air. The disadvantages here are predominantly the need for a high-grade steel exhaust system to prevent corrosion by the urea, extensive peripheral SCR equipment, a heated urea tank and a compressed air system to inject the urea solution.

AGR technology
The AGR technology feeds some of the cooled exhaust gas back into the engine to keep the combustion temperature and, thus, the formation of NOx low. However, a particle filter is also required to maintain the particle value. This technology needs no other reduction components, requiring a larger engine space and installation of a larger exhaust silencer. Furthermore, 30 higher cooling efficiency and low-sulphur fuels are required.

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